WAA MAXAY CLASS G AIRSPACE? MANCASSE SOMALIA AIRSPACE LOOGA DHIGAY CLASS G?.

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WAA MAXAY CLASS G AIRSPACE? MANCASSE SOMALIA AIRSPACE LOOGA DHIGAY CLASS G?

Sidii aynu maqaallo badan ku sheegnayba waxaa hawada sare (Airspace) ama sharciyada duulitaanada hawada maamula hay’adda ICAO. Marka laga yimaaddo 96-ka qodob ee loo yaqaan Chicago Convention 1944 waxaa Iyana dhinac socda 19 annexes oo loo yaqaan SARPs (Standard and Recommendation Practices) kuwaasoo annex waliba uu khuseeyo arrimo gaar ah xagga nabad gelyada duulimaadyada ku saabsan iyagoo lifaaq (Attachment) ku ah qodobadii Chicago Convention.

Hadaba, haddii aynu soo qaadanno annexes-ka khuseeya maqaalkeenan ee ah annex 2 iyo Annex 11. Annex 2 wuxuu gaar u yahay ama u khuseeyaa sharciyada hawada (Rules of Air).

Markaa si loo helo safarro nabad gelyo leh qodobkani wuxuu dhigayaa habka ugu mudan ee lagu helo karo ujeedadaas, taas oo qiimaynta tayo ahaan oo ku dhisan aqoonta iyo xirfadda, habraaca iyo agab ahaanba ee loo isticmaalayo hagidda gaadiidka cirka iyadoo la raacayo nidaamka qiimaynta ee SARPs.

Si loo suurta geliyo nabadgelyada hawada sare (Airspace) ayey ICAO waxay hawada sare u qaybisay laba qaybood oo ugu muhiimsan oo kala ah Hawada La Ilaaliyo (Controlled Airspace) iyo Hawada aan la Ilaalin (Uncontrolled Airspace).

Labadan qaybood ee ay u kala qaybisay ayey mar labaad u sii kala qaybisay Hawada la Ilaaliyo (Controlled Airspace) oo 5 qaybood ah (A,B,C,D iyo E Airspace classes) iyo 2 qaybood oo ah Hawada aan la Ilaalin (F and G Airspace classes).

Si aynu u fahamno qaybaha ay ICAO u kala qaybisay hawada waxaynu u kala qaadanaynaa labadan qaybood ee hoos ku kala qoran inagoo mid walba gaar u sharaxayna iyo shuruudiisa.

HAWADA LA ILAALIYO (CONTROLLED AIRSPACE)

Hawadani ama qaybtan airspace-ka waxaa loo kala qaaday 5 class oo kala ah A, B, C, D iyo E. Inkastoo ay waddamada qaar ku kala duwan yihiin isticmaalka qaybahan, sida UK Airspace oo aan isticmaalin Class B. Hadana, 5-tan qaybood waa sida ay ICAO u qaybisay hawada sare ee loo yaqaan Controlled Airspace.

Class A: Waxaa loo ogol yahay oo keliya diyaaradaha ku duula shuruudaha loo IFR (Instrumental Flight Rules). Diyaarad kasta oo qaybta hawadan (Airspace) ku duulaysaa waxay ku qasban tahay in ay xidhiidh la samayso ATC, waxaana lagu hagayaa habka kala dheeraynta duulimaadyada (Flight separation).

Class B: Waxaa loo ogol yahay diyaaradaha ku duula shuruudaha aaladda IFR (Instrumental Flight Rules) iyo diyaaradaha Shuruudaha aragti ku duulka VFR (Visual Flight Rules) labadaba. Waxaanay ku qayban in loo sameeyo qidmadda hagista ee ATC, waxaana lagu hagayaa habka kala dheeraynta duulimaadyada (Flight Separation).

Class C: Labada nooc ee IFR iyo VFR waa loo ogol yahay. Waxaana loo samaynayaa khidmadda hagista ee ATC, lagun habka kala dheeraynta duulimaadyada (flight separation) ee IFR, iyo iyadoo weliba gaar loo kala xadidayo diyaaradaha ku duulaya IFR iyo VFR.

Class D: Qaybtan lafteeda waa loo ogol yahay labada nooc ee duulimaadyada IFR iyo VFR iyadoo sidoo kale loo sameynayo caawimada ATC ee kala dheeraynta duulimaadyada.

Class E: Sidoo kale waxaa labada noo ee duulitaanada la siinayaa ATC clearance, iyadoo la ka dheeraynayo. Qaybtan waxaa loo isticmaalaa diyaaradaha ku soo degaya airport-ka iyadoo laga kala ilaalinayo diyaaradaha ku duulaya IFR iyo VFR.

HAWADA AAN LA ILAALIN (UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE)
Inkastoo sidaan hore u soo sheegnay ay isticmaalka qaybhahan ku kala duwan yihiin waddamadu, sida Class F oo aan laga la istimaalin USA Airspace. Waxaan soo qaadanaynaa qaybta Class G oo ah qaybta ujeedada maqaalkeennu yahay

Class G: Qabtan waxaa loo yaqaan Unmanned airspace. Waxaanay la mid tahay airport aan lahayn wax hagid ah ama ATC. Diyaaraduhu ATC clearance uma baahna masuuliyadda lagu maro ama lagu fadhiisanayo waxa ay saaran tahay pilot-ka iyagoo ku duulaya wax loo yaqaan Arag oo Ka-baydh (See and Avoid).

SHURUUDAHA QAYBAHA HAWADA EE “CONTROLLED” IYO “UNCONTROLLED”.

▪Qaybta hawada la Ilaaliyo (Controlled Airpspace) ee kala ah A, B, C, D iyo E waxay markasta u baahan yihiin in ay ogolaansho ka qaataan ATC Clearance (Ogolaashahani maaha kii waddanka hawadiisa inay mari karto ama ku degi karto) marka ay hawada soo gelayso si ay isu report gareyso, waxay kale oo ka codsanayaan wixii macuulaamaad xagga hawada ah, haddii ay rabto inay level-ka ay ku duulayso ka baxdo. Waxay kale oo ATC uu siinayaa amarro xagga duulimaadka ah, sida kala dheeraynta diyaaradaha ee loo yaqaan Flight Separations si loo kala badbaadiyo diyaarada badan ee ku duulaya hawada iyadoo la xadidayo altitude-ka ay kula duulayaa iyo inta kala danbaynayaaba. Sidoo kale waxay codsanayaan marka ay rabaan inay ku degaan airport-ka ATC Clearance.

▪Qaybtan oo uu maqaalkeenu aad u khuseeyo maadaama ay tahay Class-ka ay ICAO ka dhigtay hawada Soomaaliya ay ah Class G. Diyaaradaha hawadan marayaa ma u baahna in ay wax xidhiidh ah ama ogolaansho ah ka qaataan (Ma aha Ogolaashahii inay waddanka ka qaadato ee Flight Permission), waxayse ka codsanayaan inay u soo gudbiyaan macluumaadka hawada uun (Metrological Information) oo ah AIRMET iyo SIGMET (Significant Meteorological Information).
Marka ay diyaaradahani hawadan ama Class-kan G soo gelayaan waxay hore ka xadidayaan xawaarihii ay ku duulaysay oo ay ka dhigayso 250kts oo ah xawaaraha sharciga loo yaqaan duulimaadka aragtida ama VFR (Visual Flight Rules), heerka duulimaadkii Flight Level-kii ay ku duulaysayna ma bedelayso (Haddii aan TCAS amar deg deg ah siin), waxa kale oo ay diyaaradahan shardi ku ah inay shitaan system ku xidhan diyaaraha oo radar ah loona yaqaan TCAS (Traffic Collision Avoidance System).

TCAS waa software ku xidhan transponder-ka ama ACAS-ka diyaaradaha oo u shaqeeya sida radar-ka, isagoo dira signal gaadhi kara 40 miles, markuu signal-ku la kulmo transponder-ka diyaaradaha kale ee hawada kula jira ee ugu dhow, ayuu wuxuu soo noqdaa isagoo sida message ah nooca diyaaradda, altitude-ka ay ku duulayso, xawaaraheeda iyo jihadeedaba. Waxa kale oo transponder-ka diyaaraddu xisaabinayaa mudadii uu signalku ku soo noqoday iyo xawaaraha taasoo sahlaysa in uu helo ista ay soo jirto. Haddii ay diyaaradda kale markaa tahay mid aan bedelaynin jihada iyo level-ka ay ku duulayso waxay labada TCAS kala siinayaan wax loo yaqaan TA (Traffic Advisory), haddii ay arrintu halkaa sii dhaaftona waxaa imanaysa amarka kala badbaadinta ee ah RA (Resolution Advisory) oo kala siinaya labada diyaaradood laba amaro o lid isku ah marka ay isu jirsadaan 15-35 seconds.

MAXAA HADABA SOMALIA AIRSPACE LOOGA DHIGAY CLASS G?

Sidaynu hore u soo sheegnay habka lagu qiyaaso nabad gelyada hawada sare (Airspace safety) ee loo yaqaan SARPs (Standard and Recommendation Practices) ayaanay Soomaaliya buuxin xag farsamo, aqooneed iyo agabba. Sidaa daraadeed ma aha mid lagu halleyn karo inay hantaan nabad gelyada ama kala dheeraynta diyaaradaha hawada sare ku jira. Iyadoo markaa xagga safety-ga ay ka eegayso ayey Hay’adda ICAO waxay ku soo rogtay in la dhimo tirada diyaarada hal mar wada maraya si loo helo kala dheerayn ka badan inta dunida kale lagu maro ee loo yaqaan RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minima), Maadaama aanay buuxin karin shuruudaha ay ku maamuli karto class-yada airspace-ka ay ka dhigtay class G airspace si ay masuuliyadda uga wareegiso oo ay diyaaradaha marayaa ay qaataan taxadir dheeraad ah iyagoo raacaya shuruudaha class G Airspace.

Waxaa diyaaradaha mara Mogadishu FIR (Flight Information Region) lagu wargeliyaa in marka ay hawadan marayaan aanay in amarka loo yaqaan Clearance aanay ka qaadan ATC. Sidaa daraadeedna ay masuuliyadda nabadgelyo ee duulitaanka airspace-kan ay saaran tahay pilots-ka ka masuulka ah diyaaradaha maraya hawada Somalia, iyagoo taxadir deeraad ah samaynaya.

Arrintani waxay masuuliyadda oo dhan saaraysaa in pilots-ku ay qaadaan masuuliyadda kala dheeraynta diyaaradaha iyagoo raacaya route-kii iyo flight level-kii ay kaga soo baxeen FIR (Flight Information Region) kii ugu danbeeyey iyagoo markaa isticmaalaya qalab ku xidhan diyaaradda oo la tidhaa ACAS (Air Collision Avoidance System), kuwa fadhiisanayaana ay ku fadhiisan doonaan masuuliyadooda (Own discretion) iyagoo isticmaalaya habka “Arag oo Ka-baydh” (See and Avoid).

Waxa kale oo la xadidayaa xawaaraha diyaarada oo laga dhigayo 250kts iyo in aanay ka bixin joogga ama flight level-ka ay ku duulayaan si loo helo kala dheerayn (Flight Separation).

Sababaha keenay in masuuliyadda la saaro duuliyayaasha diyaaradaha ee hawada Somalia marayaa ayaa waxay tahay iyadoo:

▪In Somalia madaaradeedu aanay lahayn khariiradaha degitaan diyaaradaha iyo kicitaankoodaba ee ka duwa waxyaabaha khatar gelin kara “Obsticles and terrains avoidance chart” ee loo yaqaan SIDs (Standard Instrument Departure Route) iyo STARs (Standard Terminal Arrival Route). Khariiradani waxay diyaaradaha ka weecisaa waxyaabaha ay ka mid yihiin buuraha u dhow airportka, Wires ama biraha aadka u dhaadheer IWM.

▪In aanay lahayn Aaladaha diyaaradaha ka caawiya in ay ku fadhiistaan dhabbaha (Precision Runway Approach Aid) ee loo yaqaan ILS (Instrumental Landing System).

▪ In aanay jirin aaladaha NAVAID-ka ee loo yaqaan VOR (VHF Omnidirectional Range) iyo DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) oo diyaaradaha ka caawiya inay ogaadaan dariiqa ay marayaan iyo route-ka raacayaan iyadoo ay u duurta geliyaan Radiyaal iyo Qalab isku xidhan oo u dira signals.

▪ In aanay ku xidhnayn runway-yada lights-ka aragti ku fadhiisiga ee loo yaqaan VASI (Visual Approach Slope Indicator), PAPI (Precision Approach Path Indicator) iyo OLS (Optical Landing System).

▪ In aanay jirin shaqaale ka mid ah ATC ee haga diyaaradaha oo leh Licence ATC Controller. Sidaa daraadeed ma bixin karaan amarada loo yaqaan Landing Clearance ama kala dheeraynta duulimaadyada (Flight Separations).

▪Xidhiidh raadiyaha (Radio transmission) ee Mogadishu FIR ma aha mid la isku hallayn karo, waayo ma aha mid si fiican u wada maqli karaan diyaaradaha FIR-ka ku wada jira (Dhanka waqooyiga ee FIR-ku waa daciif is maqalka ilaa Gaalkacyo).

▪Daabacaadda macluumaadka ee duulimaadyada ee loo yaqaan AIP (Aeronautical Information Publication) ee ay diyaarisay SCAA ma aha mid ku salaysan xaqiiqda iyo macluumaad sax ah (accurate data). Kaas oo ay weliba ka caawisay gabadh Kenyan ah oo la odhan jiray Charity Muthoni oo muddo 2 sanno ah la shaqeynaysay SCAA.

▪Magnaanshaha ATC-ga labaad ee xaaladaha degdegga ah (Contigency ATC) ayaa iyaduna ah caqlad.

▪Ma laha hannaan u degsan si looga hortago ama looga fogeeyo shimbiraha duula runway-yada airports-ka qaarkood oo khatar geliya markay kacayaan iyo markay degayaanba (Bird Strike avoidance procedure).

Sidaa daraadeed, marka la eego qodobada kor ku xusan ma aha kuwa buuxinaya shuruudaha Articles 12, 22 iyo 26 ee Chicago Convention 1944. Midda kale ma la jaan qaadi karaan lifaaqyada convention-ka ee Article 37 ee kala ah Annex 2 iyo Annex 11 ee Habka iyo Hannaanka loo baahan yahay ee loo yaqaan SARPs (Standard and Recommended Practices).

Markaa maadaama aanay buuxin karin shuruudahan aqoon, habraaca iyo agab ahaanba waxaa lagu qiimeeyay in noqoto meel aanay ka jirin wax haga diyaaradaha ATC, oo uu macnaheedu noqonayo in aanay hanan karin hagidda diyaaradaha maraya airspace-ka iyo kuwa soo degayaba. Markaa lagu qiimeeyo in ay noqoto class G Airspace oo ah meel aanay ka jirin hagid diyaaradeed (Un-manned airspace).

Nidaam-kani (Class G Airspace) wuxuu Hawada Somalia ka dul qaadayaa in magdhow loogu qabsado wixii shil ah ee ku yimaadda hawada sare (Airspace) marka ay noqoto kala dheeraynta duulimaadyada ama duulitaanka iyo degitaanka (Take off, Approach and Landing) maadaama aanay clearance-ka bixin iyagu.

MAXAA DHICI KARA HADDII XAALAD DEGDEG AHI KU TIMAADO ATC MOGADISHU?

Waxa ay DFS ku guulaysan wayday in ay hirgeliso samaynta ATC labaad oo sida heshiiskii ICAO ay la gashay dhigayo in buuxiso shuruudaha Annex 2 iyo article 28 (a). Qaybtan oo noqon lahayd mid loo isticmaalo xaaladaha degdegga ah marka uu hakad ku yimaaddo shaqada ATC Mogadishu, si aanay khatar u gelin hannaan socodka iyo badbaadada diyaaradaha hawada ku jira markaa.

Qaybtan oo sida caadada ahba ka wada jirta dunida oo dhan waxaa loo yaqaannaa Contigency ATC. Waxaa Airspace-ka Somalia loogu talo galay Contigency ATC inuu noqdo Hargeisa Egal International Airport, laakiin DFS way ka dhego adaygta in qalabkii laga soo wareejiyey xafiiska Nairobi ee noqon lahaa ATC labaad in uu Hargeisa noqdo. Sidaa daraadeed waxay DFS door bidday inay ka dhigaan ATC labaad magaalada Kismayo, waana sababta keentay in ay cadaadis badan ku saarto markii uu soo bixi waayey ninkii ay rabeen inuu madaxweyne ka noqdo Maamul goboleedka Jubbaland. Arrintaasina ay keentay in qalabkii ilaa hadda maanta iska yaallo Xalane isagoo saxaaradihiisii ku jira (sida aad ka aragtaan sawirka hoose).

Sidaynu ognahayba Airportka Mogadishu waa meel ay bartilmaamsadaan kooxaha la dagaalama DFS ee loo yaqaan Al Shabaab, iyagoo dhowaan 5 hoobiye ku weeraray kuwaas oo ku dhacay xarunta Xalane. Markaa haddii ay waxyeello soo gaadhi lahayd Airportka waxay sababi lahayd in hawada Somalia sida ku qoran xaaladaha degdega ah ay la wareegi doonaan 3 waddan oo deris la ah Somalia deris la ah kuwaas oo kala ah Ethiopia, Kenya iyo Seychelles:

Kenya waxay la maamuli doontaa:
• Waypoint KESOM 09°15′ 12.23″N/043°45’10.12″E ilaa Waypoint EGTUL 07°20’40.00″ N/048°31’22.00″E (dariiqyada hawada),

Ethiopia waxay maamuli doontaa:
• Waypoint EXAPO 09°15’12.23″N/043° 45’10.12″E ilaa ZIZAN 11°51’36.00″N/045°39’12.00″E oo Arabian Sea ah.

Seychelles oo iyana maamuli doonta:
• Waypoints-ka qaybta badda Indian Ocean ee loo yaqaan Oceanic.

Waxaa jira warar xogogaal ah oo sheegaya in koox ka socota ICAO headquarter ay iman doonaan Mogadishu si ay dib u eegis ugu sameeyaan xaaladda hawada Somalia iyo sababta keentay in ilaa hadda aanay jirin contingency ATC taasoo dhaawac u geysan doona heerkii laga rabay ee SARPs taasina sababi doonto in heerka class G ay hoos uga sii dhici doonto hawada (Airspace) Soomaaliya iyadoo laga yaabo in laga dhigo Class G+ ama loo wareejiyo FIR kale oo wadamada deriska in loo wareejiyo.

WAAD MAHADSAN TIHIIN

Ahmed M Musa
London

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